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U Švicarskoj je također zabranjen uvoz GMO-a za prehranu ljudi i životinja

 
 
Početkom prosinca 2014. objavljena je nova znanstvena studija u znanstveno-recenziranom časopisu PLoS One pod naslovom: „Neočekivana raznolikost 'divlje' genetski modificirane uljane repice (Brassica napus L.) otkrivena u Švicarskoj unatoč zabrani uzgoja i uvoza“ (PLoS One v. 9(12) 2014). Ovo je kako se čini, prvi zabilježeni slučaj kojim je dokazano da usprkos zabrani uzgoja genetski modificirane uljane repice i uvoza sjemena, u Švicarskoj 'slobodno' raste genetski modificirana uljana repica kompanije Monsanto i Bayer.
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Švicarsko udruženje poljoprivrednika (Schweizer Bauernverband) zatražilo je još 2005. produženje moratorija za komercijalni uzgoj GMO-a do kraja 2017. Švicarski potrošači također ne žele GMO u svojoj prehrani ni pod koju cijenu, a švicarska Nacionalna znanstvena zaklada (Swiss National Science Foundation) donijela je odluku da „GMO ne nudi Švicarskoj nikakav ekonomski poticaj.“ U Švicarskoj je također zabranjen uvoz GMO-a za prehranu ljudi i životinja. Međutim, 2012. stručnjaci su izvijesitli o jednom važnom ali i zabrinjavajućem otkriću: pojavi genetski modificirane uljane repice koja se raširila duž željezničkih puteva i riječne luke u Baselu. Naime, već tada su švicarski stručnjaci proveli istraživanja u svrhu otkrivanja moguće kontaminacije uzrokovane genetski modificiranim organizmima u švicarskom transportnom sustavu. Genetski modificirana uljana repica naročito je invazivna i brzo se širi te uzrokuje kontaminaciju, odn. onečišćenje polja s genetski ne-modificiranim usjevima (jednako konvencionalni i ekološki uzgoj). Osim toga, GM uljana repica predstavlja značajnu prijetnju biološkoj raznolikosti.
 
Naime, u listopadu 2011. istraživači u američkoj saveznoj državi Sjeverna Dakota (North Dakota) također su otkrili kontaminaciju divljih rođaka uljane repice u prirodi s GM uljanom repicom koja se ondje raširila uz brojne glavne cestovne putove. Prof. Cynthia Sagers (Sveučilište u Arkansasu) izjavljuje: „Najveću kontaminaciju otkrili smo u blizini poljoprivrednih površina i duž glavnih puteva. Ali isto tako smo otkrili kontaminaciju s GMO-om usred ničega, tj. daleko u divljini.“ Navedena otkrića dokazuju da su znanstvenici bili u pravu kada su od početka pojave komercijalog uzgoja GMO-a upozoravali na mogućnost kontaminacije genetski ne modificiranih usjeva s genetski modificiranim: „Jednom kada se genetski modificirani duh pusti iz boce tada više ne će biti moguće vratiti ga natrag.“
http://www.musclemitochondrialaboratory.uqam.ca/Images/pubmed.jpeg
U Švicarskoj se upravo to i dogodilo. Genetski modificirane biljke pronađene su duž željezničkih puteva i na četiri lučke lokacije 2011. i 2012., a najviše je kontaminirano područje luke rijeke Rajne u Baselu te 'St. Johann' željeznički teretni kolodvor, također u Baselu. Tada je otkriveno da se radi o genetski modificiranoj uljanoj repici tolerantnoj na herbicid glifozat (ili glifosat) kompanije Monsanto (tzv. Roundup Ready GT73). Nadalje, znanstvenici su otkrili i GM uljanu repicu tolerantnu na herbicid glufozinat MS8xRF3, MS8 i RF3 (sve poznate pod trgovinskim nazivom 'InVigor' kompanije Bayer) i to na pet lokacija u luci rijeke Rajne. Švicarski stručnjaci su već tada naglasili da je to prema njihovom saznanju prvo otkriće 'divlje' genetski modificirane uljane repice MS8xRF3, MS8 i RF3, kompanije Bayer u Europi. Slijedeće otkriće koje je zabrinulo švicarske znanstvenike je tzv. „outcrossing“ (prijenos genetskog materijala između različitih biljnih sorti) između monsantove GM uljane repice GT73 i dvije komercijalne sorte. Ovo otkriće samo je potvrdilo opravdanost dugogodišnjeg straha stručnjaka da su GM biljke sposobne „transformirati“ genetski ne modificirane biljke u – genetski modificirane. Upravo iz ovog razloga dovodi se u pitanje mogućnost postojanja različitih poljoprivrednih sustava i uzgoja poljoprivrednih kultura.
 
„U Europskoj uniji trenutno je zabranjen komercijalni uzgoj genetski modificirane uljane repice, a autorizacija za uvoz GM uljane repice namijenjene za prehranu ljudi i hranidbu životinja je ograničena za GM uljanu repicu otpornu na herbicid glifozat ('Roundup Ready' uljana repica / GT73 kompanije Monsanto), te MS8, RF3, MS8xRF3 i T45 (svi poznati pod nazivom 'InVigor' kompanije Bayer CropScience). U Švicarskoj je na snazi zabrana komercijalnog uzgoja i uvoza GM uljane repice najmanje do kraja 2017. Usprkos tome, GM uljana repica je pronađena u Švicarskoj duž željezničkih puteva i luke na rijeci Rajni kod Basela. To dokazuje da se širenje GM uljane repice ne može spriječiti zabranom uzgoja i uvoza. U Japanu gdje je dozvoljen uvoz GM uljane repice ali ne i komercijalni uzgoj, ova GM biljna kultura neprekidno se otkriva i potvrđuje u lučkim područjima i duž transportnih puteva. Međutim, ovaj slučaj otkriven u Švicarkoj je jedinstven jer je na snazi zabrana komercijalnog uzgoja GM uljane repice kao i njezin uvoz.“
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Na temelju ovog izuzetnog otkrića postavlja se slijedeće pitanje: U kojoj mjeri je svjetski prehrambeni lanac danas već kontaminiran genetski modificiranim biljkama? Na ovo pitanje vrlo teško je odgovoriti. Ipak, pojedini slučajevi dokazuju da je naš prehrambeni lanac zapravo već znatno kontaminiran s genetski modificiranim usjevima kao i drugim sastojcima koji se masovno koriste u prehrambenoj industriji.
 
Jedan od novijih primjera je istraživanje provedeno u Saudijskoj Arabiji čiji rezultati su objavljeni u kolovozu 2013. u časopisu za Primijenjenu biokemiju i biotehnologiju („Applied Biochemistry i Biotechnology“) pod naslovom „Prevalence of Genetically Modified Rice, Maize and Soy in Saudi Food Products“ („Prevladavanje genetski modificirane riže, kukuruza i soje u prehrambenim proizvodima Saudijske Arabije“). Rezultati ove studije otkrili su raširenu kontaminaciju sveukupnog prehrambenog lanca u Saudijskoj Arabiji s genetski modificiranim sastojcima, uključujući i sadržaj kontroverznog genetski modificiranog kukuruza poznatog pod nazivom 'StarLink' (tzv. Bt-kukuruz). 
 
'StarLink' kukuruz bio je dozvoljen za prehranu domaćih životinja te primjenu u prehrambenoj industriji u SAD-u od 1998. Međutim, zbog svoje izuzetno visoke alergenosti zabranjen je u prehrambenim proizvodima za ljudsku uporabu i izbačen je s tržišta prije nešto više od jednog desetljeća. A sada je otkriven u prehrambenim proizvodima u Saudijskoj Arabiji. Krajem svibnja 2013. USDA (Američko Ministarstvo poljoprivrede) je službeno potvrdila otkriće ilegalnog i nedozvoljenog uzgoja genetski modificirane pšenice kompanije Monsanto, a polje je otkriveno u državi Oregon. Ispitivanje provedeno u laboratoriju USDA-e otkrilo je da se radi o GM pšenici otpornoj na herbicid glifozat. Ova GM pšenica imala je dozvolu za „uzgoj“ u znanstvene svrhe, tj. istraživanje na poljima u 16 saveznih američkih država u razdoblju od 1998. do 2005.
http://agrihq.co.nz/assets/Uploads/Prof-Jack-Heinemann2.jpg
Jack Heinemann
 
Prof. Jack Heinemann, University of Canterbury (Australija), povodom otkrića novih pokusa s jednom drugom GM pšenicom u Australiji je izjavio: „Ono što smo pronašli u molekulama ove novostvorene GM pšenice s namjerom tzv. 'utišavanja' određenih gena u biljci pšenice, može imati isti učinak i na ljudske gene, uneseni hranom u ljudski organizam oni mogu 'utišati' i naše gene, a to se može odnositi na stotine gena.“ Tako učinjena šteta i oštećenje gena je stalno i nepovratno, objasnio je prof. Heinemann te naglasio da se ove promjene prenose na potomstvo! Štoviše, može imati i smrtonosan učinak, jer dijete s istim 'utišanim' genom kao i u biljci pšenice ne će živjeti duže od pet godina. Rezultati istraživanja su apsolutno točni. „Nema nikakve sumnje da ova podudarnost postoji,“ upozorio je prof. Heinemann.   
 
Naprijed navedeni slučajevi samo nam dokazuju kako malo mi zapravo znademo o stvarnoj kontaminaciji sveukupnog prehrambenog lanca i biosfere s genetski modificiranim organizmima, te kako je kontrola vrlo slaba i ograničena. Međutim, posebno zabrinjava mogućnost ilegalnog uzgoja pojedinih genetski modificiranih kultura koje se namjerno ili posve slučajno mogu naći u velikom broju prehrambenih proizvoda, bilo konvencionalnih ili ekoloških.
 

Rodjena Marija Kuhar, dr. med. vet.

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