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Samo agroekologija se može uhvatiti u koštac s globalnom prehrambenom i zdravstvenom krizom

 
 
Nedavno objavljen Izvještaj globalne prehrane (2014.) otkrio je da su gotovo sve države svijeta suočene s problemima malnutricije i zdravstvenim poremećajima uzrokovanih nezdravom i neuravnoteženom prehranom. Podsjetimo se: MALNUTRICIJA – lat. malus = loš + nutrire = hraniti;  malnutricija je neravnoteža unosa energije, bjelančevina i drugih nutrijenata u organizam. No, malnutricija nije isto što i pothranjenost, jer malnutricija nastaje kao poremećaj nutritivnog statusa zbog smanjenog ili prekomjernog unosa hrane te zbog poremećaja u metabolizmu pojedinih nutrijenata. Malnutricija uključuje pothranjenost – odnosno smanjen unos hranjivih tvari i pre(u)hranjenost gdje je unos veći od potrebnog. Malnutricija je poremećaj hranjenja (prehrane) koji dovodi do manjka esencijalnih hranjivih tvari. Može biti primarna zbog neuravnoteženog ili nedovoljnog unosa hranjivih tvari u organizam te sekundarna, zbog nemogućnosti normalnog gutanja, probave ili apsorpcije hrane. No, tumačenje je prošireno pa se malnutricijom smatra svaki poremećaj prehrane, odnosno poremećaj ravnoteže između tjelesnih potreba i uzimanja hranjivih tvari. 
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"Trebali bismo se prestati pitati zašto je nepatvorena hrana tako skupa i početi se pitati zašto je prerađena hrana tako jeftina."
 
Ovaj Izvještaj otkriva pravu istinu i stvarne, duboke probleme uzrokovane dominirajućim agroindustrijskim modelom proizvodnje hrane te potrebu za novim agroekološkim pristupima za potrebu prehrane svjetskog stanovništva. Mi se prejedamo, nemamo dovoljno hrane za jesti, prodajemo i kupujemo 'tvari nalik hrani' dok bogati i slavni koji su često nama uzori – izbjegavaju odabir takve hrane. Mehanizirali smo farme kako bismo smanjili potrebu ljudskog rada a time i troškove, brinemo se zbog nedostatka radnih mjesta u ruralnim područjima, odlazimo u teretane i druge športske centre na vježbanje, „nalijevamo“ se zaslađenim energetskim napitcima itd. Rafiniramo ugljikohidrate i postali smo ovisnici o njima...
 
Globalno, trenutačno proizvodimo dvostruko veći iznos kalorija od tekućih potreba današnje svjetske populacije: 4.600 kilokalorija po osobi dnevno, što je dostatno za prehranu 14 milijardi ljudi u budućnosti! S jedne strane to znači da se na globalnoj razini proizvodi dovoljna količina hrane. Međutim, s druge pak strane svijet nije nahranjen, što dokazuje objavljeni Izvještaj globalne prehrane prema kojem je većina zemalja suočena s ozbiljnim zdravstvenim rizicima stanovništva radi malnutricije. Ovo nadasve važno pitanje 'KVALITETE HRANE' je ozbiljan nedostatak cijelog prehrambenog sustava s kojim se sektor industrijske poljoprivrede ne želi suočiti. Opće je prihvaćeno i dobro poznato da je većina poremećaja i oboljenja usko povezana s našom današnjom prehranom – uzrok je prekomjerno konzumiranje industrijski prerađene hrane. Najnoviji dokaz, naročito onaj koji je objavio američki profesor pedijatrijske medicine i endokrinolog dr. Robert H. Lustig, izravno dokazuje povezanost industrijski prerađenih ugljikohidrata u obliku šećera i suvremenih sorti i hibrida žitarica kao glavne uzroke ozbiljnih zdravstvenih poremećaja.    
 
Nekoliko znanstvenih studija čija namjera je bila analiza fluktuacije razine hranjivih tvari u hrani (naročito voću i povrću) u Europi i SAD-u u razdoblju nakon Drugog svjetskog rata do danas, otkrivaju znatno smanjenje odnosno oštar pad u postotku vitamina i minerala – i to čak do 80 posto.
 
Autori navedenih studija smatraju da su glavni uzroci smanjenja nutritivne vrijednosti današnje hrane loše upravljanje poljoprivrednim zemljištem i poljoprivrednom proizvodnjom u kombinaciji s programom uzgoja poljoprivrednih kultura čiji cilj je isključivo ostvarenje visokih prinosa a time i profita, što je najvjerojatnije uzrokovalo smanjenje nutritivnih karakteristika poljoprivrednih kultura. Ovu pojavu stručnjaci nazivaju „učinak genetskog razrjeđivanja“ gdje se često navodi primjer pšenice: uzgojeni su kultivari (varijeteti) pšenice koji daju visoke prinose ali je to uzrokovalo smanjenje koncentracije minerala u pšenici. Najnovije i opsežno znanstveno ocjenjivanje proizvoda organske i ne-organske poljoprivrede zaključuje da metode poljoprivredne proizvodnje utječu na kvalitetu poljoprivrednih proizvoda. Poljoprivredni proizvodi proizvedeni prema standardima organske poljoprivrede sadrže mnogo više poželjnih antioksidansa i manje potencijalno štetnih kemijskih tvari poput kadmija, dušika i rezidua pesticida (Baranski i sur., 2014.)
 
Jedan od „najsvježijih“ primjera povezanosti tla, biljaka i ljudskoga zdravlja odnosi se upravo na sadržaj antioksidansa u povrću. Naime, kod primjene pesticida dolazi do inhibicije tj. sprječavanja oslobađanja tvari koje biljku štite od bolesti i štetnika. U obrambene mehanizme biljke uključene su i tvari koje poznajemo pod nazivom sekundarni metaboliti ili antioksidansi. To su ujedno tvari koje nama pomažu u obrani organizma protiv karcinoma i drugih bolesti. Organski poljoprivredni proizvodi sadrže 10 do 50 % veću koncentraciju ovih korisnih metabolita. Ipak, mi još uvijek imamo rascjepkano razumijevanje o povezanosti tla, biljaka i čovjeka. Tako na primjer mi znademo korisnost simbioze korijena biljke i mikoriznih gljivica koje 'uzimaju' minerale iz tla, a koji tako postaju dostupni biljci – i do 80 % određenih minerala biljka dobiva zahvaljujući mikoriznim gljivicama.
 
Također nam je poznato da je biljno korijenje koje je kolonizirano mikoriznim gljivicama u organskom sustavu poljoprivredne proizvodnje i do 40 % veće duljine od onoga u agroindustrijskom sustavu, što upućuje na bolju i veću opskrbljenost ovih biljaka određenim mineralima. Problem malnutricije uopće ne iznenađuje, budući je glavni cilj moderne intenzivne agroindustrijske proizvodnje stvaranje profita a ne proizvodnja zdrave, kvalitetne hrane. Štoviše, medicinska struka odvojila se posve od pitanja hrane i prehrane, što je dakako ironično budući da liječnici humane medicine polažu Hipokratovu zakletvu, a jedna od najpoznatijih Hipokratovih izreka je: „Neka hrana bude tvoj lijek, a lijek tvoja hrana.“ Do sada nije učinjeno ozbiljno i prošireno istraživanje agroekoloških metoda poljoprivredne proizvodnje, a prehrambena industrija nije zainteresirana da išta mijenja u današnjoj modernoj agroindustrijskoj proizvodnji jer imaju samo jedan cilj – ostvarenje što veće zarade / profita.
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
Julia Wright
 
Ovo pak ima ozbiljne i negativne posljedice za ljudsko zdravlje, uključujući i one ekonomske prirode, budući da je cijena nekvalitetne i neuravnotežene prehrane stanovništva vrlo visoka – tako na primjer u Veliko Britaniji 2011. loša prehrana stanovništva državu je koštala 6 milijardi funti. Agroekologija je stoga neophodna metoda poljoprivredne proizvodnje koju moramo što prije usvojiti i primijeniti kako bismo poboljšali i unaprijedili našu današnju lošu, nekvalitetnu i neuravnoteženu prehranu.   
Autor: dr. Julia Wright, Coventry University (Centre for Agroecology, Water and Resilience/CAWR)

 

Prijevod: Rodjena Marija Kuhar, dr. med. vet.

Predavanje akademkinje Vide Demarin

 
 
U sklopu Tjedna mozga, u četvrtak 19. ožujka akademkinja Vida Demarin održala je u Knjižnici HAZU-a predavanje na temu Mozak koji traje – najnovije spoznaje o očuvanju zdravlja mozga u kojem je govorila o načinima na koji se može izbjeći rizik od neuroloških bolesti i sačuvati svježinu mozga.
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Predsjednik HAZU-a akademik Zvonko Kusić u uvodnom je govoru podsjetio na uspjehe Klinike za neurologiju Kliničke bolnice „Sestre milosrdnice“ koja je u proteklim desetljećima stekla međunarodni ugled u prevenciji i liječenju moždanog udara. Do 2011. na čelu Klinike bila je akademkinja Demarin koja je, po riječima akademika Kusića, stekla gotovo svjetsku slavu kao stručnjakinja i znanstvenica, ali i svojim predavanjima i drugim aktivnostima kojima podiže svijest građana o neurološkim bolestima i popularizira njihovu preventivu. „Akademkinja Demarin je promotorica neuroplasičnosti mozga koja nam pokazuje da mozak nije statičan organ koji se ne može oporaviti i na čije funkcije ne možemo djelovati, već naprotiv, da vježbanjem mozga možemo sačuvati njegovu svježinu do starosti te odgoditi demenciju, pa i Alzheimerovu bolest. Ideja da možemo utjecati na mozak postojala je od početka XX. stoljeća, ali nitko je ranije nije uspio dokazati“, rekao je akademik Kusić.
 
Akademkinja Vida Demarin iznijela je podatak da je među prvih 10 bolesti koje uzrokuju invaliditet osam neuroloških, a da Europa godišnje na liječenje posljedica neuroloških bolesti troši 800 milijardi eura, što je trećina svih troškova za zdravstvo. Zbog toga je 2014. i bila proglašena Europskom godinom mozga.
 
„U svijetu godišnje 15 milijuna ljudi dobije moždani udar, dok ih četiri milijuna boluje od Parkinsonove bolesti, 65 milijuna od epilepsije, a čak 350 milijuna od depresije“, kazala je akademkinja Demarin, istaknuvši da u 20 posto slučajeva na te bolesti utječe genetski čimbenik, a 80 posto ih ovisi o životnim navikama i ponašanju. „Stupovi očuvanja zdravog mozga su otkrivanje čimbenika rizika, zdrava prehrana, redovita tjelesna aktivnost, emocionalna stabilnost i vježbanje moždanih funkcija“, dodala je akademkinja Demarin. Pojasnila je da na promjenu čimbenika rizika može utjecati promjena stila života, kao i mediteranska prehrana, uz smanjenje količine šećera u hrani. „Osobe koje su uzimale više od pet porcija voća i povrća dnevno smanjile su rizik od moždanog udara za 26 posto, a oni koji su uzimali tri porcije smanjili su rizik za 11 posto“, kazala je akademkinja Demarin. Za zdravlje mozga su bitni polifenoli i antioksidansi koji se nalaze i u različitim vrstama vina, a čak pet puta više nego u crnom vinu ima ih u kakao prahu. S tim u vezi akademkinja Demarin je iznijela i podatak da zemlje u kojima se konzumira više čokolade imaju više dobitnika Nobelovih nagrada.
 
Kako bi se smanjio stres potreban je pozitivan pristup prema životu, a radi očuvanja funkcija mozga važno je izbjegavati rutinu i prakticirati brain fitness stalnim korištenjem mozga, primjerice stjecanjem novih znanja, učenjem jezika, rješavanjem križaljki, jer se mozak uporabom čuva i razvija. Istraživanja su pokazala da su vozači taksija u Londonu koji su prije postojanja GPS-a morali pamtiti ulice i njihova imena imali širi hipokampus, a akademkinja Demarin je spomenula i primjer Alberta Einsteina čiji mozak je imao deblje veze i deblju koru mozga upravo zbog brain fitnessa.
 

Marijan Lipovac

Izjava akademika o školskoj nastavi matematike, fizike,kemije, biologije

 
 
S obzirom na različita mišljenja u Hrvatskoj o nastavnim planovima i programima za osnovne i  srednje škole, a radi pojašnjenja stava Hrvatske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti, slobodni smo ukratko prikazati mišljenje članova Razreda za matematičke, fizičke i kemijske znanosti Hrvatske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti.
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Obrazovanje u području prirodoslovlja i matematike važno je iz slijedećih razloga:
- pravilno i suvremeno (znanstveno utemeljeno) poimanje Svijeta i razumijevanje prirodnih pojava je dio opće kulture pojedinaca bitne za zauzimanje utemeljenog i uravnoteženog stava i odnosa spram prirode i društva.
- obrazovanje u području temeljnih prirodnih znanosti (fizika, kemija, biologija) bitno je u svakodnevnom životu pri ocjeni i uporabi svih suvremenih dostignuća i sredstava (aparati, informatika, kemikalije, lijekovi, energija, voda,  ekologija, medicina itd.).
- obrazovanje u području matematike i temeljnih prirodnih znanosti (fizika, kemija, biologija), uz stečeno znanje, razvija sposobnost egzaktnog (kvantitativnog) poimanja. Ta je sposobnost bitna za predviđanje događaja i donošenje pravilnih odluka u svim sferama života, jer razvija sposobnost uzimanja u obzir većeg broja podataka (parametara). Uz to, ta sposobnost omogućuje originalno rješavanje problema što je bitno za razvoj kako društva tako tehnologije i dr. Iz navedenih se razloga s obrazovanjem u matematici i temeljnim prirodoslovnim disciplinama treba započeti u ranoj učeničkoj dobi.
- obrazovanje u području matematike i temeljnih prirodnih znanosti (fizika, kemija, biologija) daje ključnu osnovicu za studije inženjerstva, medicine,   farmacije, biotehnike, matematike, informatike, fizike, kemije, biologije, ekonofizike itd. kao i za odgovarajuće stručnjake na razini srednjeg obrazovanja.
 
Disciplinarno prirodoslovno obrazovanje
 
S obzirom na obujam postojećih znanja u području prirodoslovlja već se davno ustanovila potreba za uspostavljanjem pojedinih prirodoslovnih disciplina koje se međusobno prožimaju i nadopunjuju. Temeljne prirodoslovne discipline su fizika, kemija i biologija (molekularna biologija). Ova podjela se pokazala smislenom i praktičnom, a temelji se kako na sadržaju tako i na potrebi za postupnim savladavanjem gradiva. Započinje se s matematikom. Slijedi fizika za koju je potrebno poznavanje matematike. Za kemiju treba znati odgovarajuće gradivo matematike i fizike. Suvremena biologija (molekularna biologija) zahtijeva poznavanje matematike, fizike i kemije. Primijenjene discipline zahtijevaju dobro poznavanje temeljnih prirodoslovnih disciplina.
 
Interdisciplinarno prirodoslovno obrazovanje
 
Uči se disciplinarno, a djeluje interdisciplinarno. Proučavanje prirodnih pojava zahtijeva timski rad stručnjaka iz raznih područja (disciplina). U procesu obrazovanja je naročito zanimljivo neku pojavu osvijetliti s raznih strana. Na primjer, ako se govori o našem planetu, treba primijeniti znanje fizike, geologije, geografije, kemije, biologije, ekologije itd. Međutim, pogrešno bi bilo uspostaviti jedan interdisciplinarni nastavni predmet kao npr. „Prirodoslovlje“, osim u najranijim godinama školovanja kada se priroda razmatra na opisnoj razini. U tom smislu postoje zablude i pogrešna nastojanja, no loša iskustva u razvijenim zemljama dovela su do postupnog napuštanja interdisciplinarne koncepcije. Problem leži u nužnoj postupnosti pri savladavanju znanja iz pojedinih disciplina, a i u kompetenciji nastavnika. Interdisciplinarno obrazovanje bi imalo za posljedicu da učenici o svemu znaju površno, ponešto, ali da bit stvari ne razumiju. Međutim, unutar svake pojedine discipline (nastavnog predmeta) treba nastojati da se u zgodnoj prilici neka pojava razmotri interdisciplinarno primjenjujući stečena znanja iz ostalih disciplina.
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
Suvremeno prirodoslovno obrazovanje
 
Razvoj prirodoslovlja donosi nova znanja i razumijevanja prirodnih pojava što svakako treba uključiti u obrazovni proces. Također, u obrazovanje treba uključiti nove, a prokušane nastavne i pedagoške metode. Sve se promjene trebaju vršiti kontinuirano, u malim koracima, preispitujući rezultate prethodnih zahvata. U obrazovanju se pogreške ne mogu ispraviti ni jednostavno niti brzo. Posljedice pogrešnih zahvata traju i po pola stoljeća. Dosadašnji pristup obrazovanju, s dobro zastupljenim temeljnim prirodoslovnim disciplinama, dao je nekad teško zamislive rezultate u znanosti i primjeni znanosti u svim područjima života. Stoga je jasno da je dosadašnja koncepcija obrazovanja bila itekako plodonosna te da ju ne treba mijenjati, već tek postupno usavršavati. Opasnost pri promjenama u području obrazovanja nalazi se u dva pogrešna nastojanja. Prvo, pogrješno je nastavne predmete, kao što su matematika, fizika, kemija i biologija, objedinjavati u zajedničke interdisciplinarne predmete, osim u najranijim godinama školovanja (do šestog razreda osnovne škole) kada se priroda i prirodne pojave razmatraju na opisnoj razini. Pogubno je smanjivanje nastavnih sati iz temeljnih prirodoslovnih predmeta. Postojeći nastavni plan s određenim nastavnim satima iz matematike, fizike, kemije i biologije ne bi trebalo mijenjati. Međutim, nastavne sadržaje iz pojedinih temeljnih prirodoslovnih disciplina treba osloboditi pretjeranog pamćenja nevažnih podataka (naročito uz danas lako i brzo dostupne informacije) i šablonskog rješavanja zadataka, s time da se temeljni pojmovi bolje utvrđuju i primjenjuju. Potrebno je opremiti školske kabinete za fiziku, kemiju i biologiju. Potrebno je osigurati da nastavnici imaju znanje na višoj razini od onoga koje predaju. Stoga, matematiku, fiziku, kemiju i biologiju, kao i predmet "Priroda", mogu predavati samo predmetni nastavnici koji su završili odgovarajući studij na prirodoslovno-matematičkim fakultetima i koji se tijekom rada dalje stručno usavršavaju dobro programiranim i organiziranim cijeloživotnim obrazovanjem.
 
Strategija obrazovanja, znanosti i tehnologije sa stajališta matematike i prirodoslovnih znanosti
 
Školska nastava matematike, fizike, kemije i biologije kao temelja inženjerskih, medicinskih, biotehničkih, matematičkih, prirodoslovnih, ekonofizičkih te sve više i drugih struka mora biti adekvatno tretirana u strategiji obrazovanja, znanosti i tehnologije kao jedan od ključnih faktora za razvoj gospodarstva i društva. Uloga tih temeljnih znanja treba biti adekvatno sagledana i ugrađena u Strategiju, kao uvjet za uspješnost Hrvatske na svjetskom tržištu rada i znanja, o kojem će prioritetno ovisiti budući životni standard građana Republike Hrvatske. Odustajanje od tog cilja vodilo bi Hrvatsku u zemlju slabo obrazovane i slabo plaćene radne snage. Zato se ne smije na brzinu ulaziti u nedovoljno pripremljene i promišljene promjene obrazovnog sustava kao što su izrada i uvođenje kurikula, donošenje novih i mijenjanje postojećih udžbenika, izmjene zakona i podzakonskih akata i slično. Pritom u obzir treba uzeti neka pozitivna iskustva školstva orijentiranog na razvoj (na primjer u Njemačkoj, Austriji, Kini), kao i neka negativna iskustva školstva koje nije bilo dovoljno orijentirano na razvoj (na primjer u Finskoj, SAD, Engleskoj), a koje su sada uočene u tim zemljama. Rasprave o reformi školstva trebaju se temeljiti na snazi i uvažavanju znanstvenih i stručnih argumenata. U Hrvatskoj akademiji znanosti i umjetnosti održano je o tome niz znanstvenih skupova, objavljeno niz dokumenata te ekspertiza s analizom stanja u Hrvatskoj i u svijetu. Članovi Akademije smatraju svojom dužnošću pridonijeti uspjehu ovog važnog projekta.
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